Gandhiji was born on October 2, 1869 in Poorbandar, Kathiawar, West India. He was named Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi popularly known as Father of Nation played a major role in India’s freedom struggle & his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence. In India he is also called Bapu.
Gandhiji’s Early Life:
The Indian people called Gandhiji ‘Mahatma’, meaning Great Soul. His father, Karamchand Gandhi & mother, Putlibai, was Karamchand’s fourth wife. At the age of six Gandhi went to school in Porbandar and had difficulty learning to multiply. At the age of 13 Gandhi married Kasturba, a girl the same age. Their parents arranged the marriage. The Gandhiji had four children, all sons: Harilal, born in 1888; Manilal, born in 1892; Ramdas, born in 1897; and Devdas, born in 1900. Gandhi was sixteen when his father died. Two years later the youth graduated from high school and enrolled in a small Indian college. But he disliked it and returned home after one term. Gandhi studied law in London and returned to India in 1891 to practice. In 1893 he took on a one-year contract to do legal work in South Africa.
Various Movements for Indian Independence:
Gandhi first employed Civil Disobedience Movement while an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, during the resident Indian community’s struggle there for civil rights. During this time, he wrote articles for Indian newspapers about black people that some modern readers consider racist. After his return to India in 1915, he organized protests by peasants, farmers, and urban laborers concerning excessive land-tax and discrimination. After assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women’s rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance. Above all, he aimed to achieve Swaraj or the independence of India from foreign domination. Gandhi famously led his followers in the Non-cooperation movement that protested the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (240 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930. Later, in 1942, he launched the Quit India Civil Disobedience Movement demanding immediate independence for India. Gandhi spent a number of years in jail in both South Africa and India.
As a practitioner of Ahimsa, Gandhi swore to speak the truth and advocated that others do the same. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven from yarn that he had spun by hand himself. He ate simple vegetarian food, experimented for a time with a fruitarian diet, and undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and social protest.
Gandhiji’s Images & Wallpapers
October 2nd as National Holidays
Gandhi’s birthday, 2 October, is a national holiday in India, Gandhi Jayanti. On 15 June 2007, it was announced that the “United Nations General Assembly” has “unanimously adopted” a resolution declaring 2 October as “the International Day of Non-Violence.” India observes 30 January the day of his assassination, as Martyr’s Day, to commemorate those who gave up their lives in service of the Indian nation.
On 30 January every year, on the anniversary of the death of Mahatma Gandhi, in schools of many countries is observed the School Day of Non-violence and Peace (DENIP), founded in Spain in 1964. In countries with a Southern Hemisphere school calendar, it can be observed on 30 March or thereabouts.
Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in 1930. Gandhi was also the runner-up to Albert Einstein as “Person of the Century” at the end of 1999. Time Magazine named The 14th Dalai Lama, Lech Wałęsa, Martin Luther King, Cesar Chavez, Aung San Suu Kyi, Benigno Aquino, Jr., Desmond Tutu, and Nelson Mandela as Children of Gandhi and his spiritual heirs to non-violence. The Government of India awards the annual Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens. Nelson Mandela, the leader of South Africa’s struggle to eradicate racial discrimination and segregation, is a prominent non-Indian recipient.
Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace Prize, although he was nominated five times between 1937 and 1948, including the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee, though he made the short list only twice, in 1937 and 1947. Decades later, the Nobel Committee publicly declared its regret for the omission, and admitted to deeply divided nationalistic opinion denying the award. Gandhiji was nominated in 1948 but was assassinated before nominations closed. That year, the committee chose not to award the peace prize stating that “there was no suitable living candidate” and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the prize posthumously to Gandhi was discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi. When the 14th Dalai Lama was awarded the Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was “in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi.”
Famous Quote’s & Saying By Mahatma Gandhi
- The history of the world is full of men who rose to leadership, by sheer force of self-confidence, bravery and tenacity.
- A coward is incapable of exhibiting love; it is the prerogative of the brave.
- The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.
- Learn as if you were going to live forever. Live as if you were going to die tomorrow.
- Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.
- Prayer is not asking. It is a longing of the soul. It is daily admission of one’s weakness. It is better in prayer to have a heart without words than words without a heart.
- Prayer is not an old woman’s idle amusement. Properly understood and applied, it is the most potent instrument of action.
- A man who was completely innocent, offered himself as a sacrifice for the good of others, including his enemies, and became the ransom of the world. It was a perfect act.
- You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty.
- There is nothing that wastes the body like worry, and one who has any faith in God should be ashamed to worry about anything whatsoever.